Jan Toorop (1858-1928) was one of the most versatile and influential Dutch artists during the fin de siècle. Toorop was member of Les XX in Brussels and introduced Symbolism and Art Nouveau in the Netherlands. He especially gained recognition as a painter and draftsman but was also active as designer of bookbindings and graphics. The most sought after by book collectors are his symbolist bindings for the novels of Louis Couperus. The emphasis in these early designs lies on the curvilinear lines. The letters of the titles are sometimes difficult to read.